FIVE PERSPECTIVES ON INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT FROM

WOMEN'S WAYS OF KNOWING

SILENCE

A position in which women experience themselves as mindless and voiceless and subject to the whims of external authority;

RECEIVED KNOWLEDGE

A perspective from which women conceive of themselves as capable of receiving, even reproducing, knowledge from the all-knowing external authorities but not capable of creating knowledge on their own;

SUBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE

A perspective from which truth and knowledge are conceived of as personal, private, and subjectively known or intuited;

PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE

A position in which women are invested in learning and applying objective procedures for obtaining and communicating knowledge;

CONSTRUCTED KNOWLEDGE

A position in which women view all knowledge as contextual, experience themselves as creators of knowledge, and value both subjective and objectives strategies for knowing.

Source: Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. V., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: HarperCollins, p. 15

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